Austria Political Orientation
Government Type: Parliamentary Democracy
Head of State: Federal President Alexander Van der Bellen (he is mainly a figurehead, but he can appoint and dismiss governments.)
Head of Government: Federal Chancellor Karl Nehammer (Chancellor is the equivalent of Prime Minister)
Political Party: Austrian People’s Party (OeVP)
Political Position: Center-Right Populist
MBFC’s Country Freedom Rating: 85.15 – Mostly Free
World Press Freedom Rank: Austria 29/180
According to Reporters without Borders, “Press forces far-right out of government,” referring to a scandal involving Heinz-Christian Strache, the country’s former vice-chancellor and leader of Austria’s populist far-right Freedom Party (FPÖ). The report states, “offering up state contracts in exchange for election help from a woman he believed was the niece of a Russian oligarch” brought down the right/far-right ruling coalition led by Chancellor Sebastian Kurz, which resulted in a new coalition with the left-leaning Green Party.
The report warns that this has not affected tense relations between Kurz’s conservative party and the media, which is another reason for the lower press freedom ranking. Particular media outlets are still denied certain information that the government holds. Unlike many countries in Europe, Austria does not have a Freedom of Information system in place.
In Austria, media ownership is concentrated in a few hands. For example, in several regions, the most important daily newspaper also owns the only privately-owned local radio station. This power concentration may create a media oligopoly that can threaten pluralism and lead to pro-corporate bias.
Media Ownership and Government Analysis
Although The constitution and the Media Law of 1981 guarantee press freedom in Austria, libel and slander/defamation law remain a criminal offense, in addition to a lack of freedom of information (FOI) law.
In Austria, the private broadcasting sector was established only in 2001; therefore, The public service broadcaster ORF (which operates four national television and twelve radio channels) holds a de facto monopoly, and according to Thomson Reuters, “The ORF has enough economic power to dictate contractual terms and conditions onto parties doing business with it.” The public funds ORF through license fee revenue and advertising. 24 of the board’s 35 members are directly appointed by Austria’s federal and state governments and political parties when it comes to ORF Board members. The Federal Chancellor indirectly appoints an additional six. ORF is not profit-oriented; it is a foundation under public law and subject to the ORF Act. For more on the ORF act, please read here.
On the other hand, the publishing industry is dominated by the newspaper Kronenzeitung, “reaching 31 percent of the Austrian population.” Further, the state’s role is vital in Austria since the Government provides direct subsidies for print media as per the Press Subsidies Act of 2004. Due to the pandemic, the Austrian Federal Government enacted a Covid-19 Act that provides special funding to media, which was criticized because one of the main beneficiaries was Kronenzeitung, known as a Kurz-friendly tabloid newspaper that received €2.72 million.
In contrast, all other media outlets received smaller sums compared to Kurz-friendly media. For example, the liberal daily Der Standard received €450,000 special funding; the conservative Die Presse received €450,000, the political magazine Profil received €104,000, and the leftist investigative weekly Der Falter €127,000. Special funds were also granted to private commercial radio and television stations and non-commercial private broadcasters. Media also is reliant on the government through political advertising.
In conclusion, in Austria, the Government plays a significant role in the media outlets. It provides direct subsidies to the press, which has created public criticism due to the unbalanced distribution of state funds. Another issue is the media monopoly of public broadcasting service ORF and its governance, which the government primarily appoints. Furthermore, the concentrated ownership of the media also creates a lack of plurality, which can undermine democracy.
|Top 5 Austria Media Sources by Web Rank|
Last Updated on May 12, 2023 by Media Bias Fact Check
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